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Ellsworth and McComb 2003
This paper is about the effects that passenger pigeons had on forests. There were an immense amount of passenger pigeons, about 3-5 billion individuals in North America. Because of these huge numbers, the flocks consumed a large amount of oak, American beech, and chestnut (among other types of plants). They damaged forests when the huge flocks roosted, and because their numbers were so vast, the excrement from the passenger pigeons was abundant enough to even kill vegetation on the forest floor. In addition, the weight of the pigeons alone was enough to break branches and destroy trees by making them fall over. Their distribution was large, covering a huge portion of North America.

Due to their feeding habits, they not only consumed a large amount of oak/chestnut/beech, but their excrement could have been somewhat responsible for oak being dominant in parts of North America due to the distribution of the oak seeds in their feces. When roosting, it was claime…

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